View/Download PDF
CROSSMARK LOGO Buy Reprints
PDF

Translate this page into:

Review Article
2021
:1;
12
doi:
10.25259/RVSM_2_2021

Mycotic infections in animals in India: An update

Department of Microbiology, V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110007, India
Corresponding author: Harish Chander Gugnani Department of Microbiology, V. P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi-110007, India harish.gugnani@gmail.com
Licence
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

How to cite this article: Gugnani HC. Mycotic infections in animals in India: An update. Res Vet Sci Med 2021;1:2.

Abstract

This review traces the early records of mycotic infections in India, and presents an update of animal mycoses reported from several parts of India. The types of mycoses covered are the dermatophytosis (ringworm) in domestic animals due to well-known species of zoophilic dermatophytes, viz. Trichophyton simii, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum, Microsporum canis and M. nanum, and the geophilic dermatophyte, M. gypseum, Aspergillus spp, Cryptococcus species and other yeast like fungi, histoplasma and blastomyces. The brief clinical and demographic features of infections in different animals are described. A particularly noteworthy finding in literature search is the report of clinical infections in one dog and two cows by an anthropophilic dermatophyte, T. rubrum from Belgachia, Kolkata, West Bengal in 1954. Veterinary scientists are urged to investigate the possible occurrence of infections in animals due to other pathogenic fungi including the dimorphic ones like Histoplasma and Blastomyces.

Keywords

Zoophilic dermatophytes
Mycoses in animals
India
Update

INTRODUCTION

The first record of animal mycotic infection confirmed by fungus culture in India was by Witkamp in 1924[1] when he isolated a fungus from ulcerated cutaneous lesions in horses and named it as Hyphomyces destruens. The organism was later named as Pythium insidiosum, and the disease called pythiosis by De Cock et al. in 1987.[2] No subsequent report of this disease in animals in India could be traced in the literature. The first authentic description of an animal mycosis with definite etiology in India was by Weldman in 1925[3] from a case of exfoliative dermatitis in the Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) by a yeast Mallesezia (Pityrosporum), the species involved was described to be a new species, Mallesezia patchydermatitis. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) species are lipophilic yeasts that are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of a variety of homeothermic animals. Mallesezia are yeasts in the fungal class Basidiomycetes, which also includes Cryptococcus spp, Rhodotorula spp and Trichosporon spp that can produce disease in man and animals; Cryptococcus spp are quite often involved in disseminated infections in immunosuppressed patients, and occasionally in animals. Malassezia yeasts are associated mainly with certain skin diseases and have been isolated from almost all domestic animals, wild animals, and also from wildlife.[4] M. patchydermatitis is of animal origin and zoonotic transfer of this species has been documented from dogs to neonates by healthcare workers who are owners of dogs.[5] Another yeast, Candida pseudotropicalis was found to cause abortion in mares.[6] The earliest record of animal ringworm in India was by Pinoy[7] of Trichophyton (Epidermophyton) simii in a monkey imported in France from India. The first record of epizootic lymphangitis in horses caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. farcinimosum in India was by Kapur.[8] Later Mohan et al.[9] reported an outbreak of enzootic lymphangitis in equines. Among the animal mycoses, dermatophytosis (ringworm) of several animals, viz. cattle, buffaloes, dogs, sheep, goats and poultry can be a potential source of infections in humans, sometimes causing widespread inflammatory lesions. An earlier review by Monga and Mohapatra[10] dealt with compilation of reports of mycoses in animals published up to 1980. This review presents an update of the fungal infections in animals in India reported so far. Salient clinical feature of infections caused by different species of fungi are described.

Search criteria

This review conducted an electronic (computerized) search of existing literature using the Google search engine and PubMed electronic database to identify and download relevant publications in different types of animal mycoses in India. The key words used were dermatophytosis, ringworm, aspergillosis, in livestock, domestic animals, and poultry The Boolean operator ‘AND’ was used to combine and narrow the searches. Additional information was obtained by searching the medical libraries for journals not listed in the database. The information relevant to the review was extracted from the available publications and incorporated in this review.

Literature review

Trichophyton species

The zoophilic Trichophyton species include T.simii, T. mentagrophytes, T. verrucosum and T.interdigitale as described by de Hoog et al.[11] Trichophyton simii is primarily a zoophilic dermatophyte that very frequently causes clinical infections in man and also occurs as a saprobe in soil. The first record of animal dermatophytosis (ringworm) due to T. simii in India was by Pinoy[7] in a monkey imported in France from India. Stockdale in 1965[12] identified 31 strains of an unidentified dermatophyte recovered from monkeys, poultry, a dog and a man sent from College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Mathura (UP). T. mentagrophytes is primarily a zoophilic dermatophyte that frequently infects humans and may also survive in soil (https://www.sciencedirect/com . > topics > trichophyton - mentagrophytes). T. mentagrophytes infects number of wild and domestic animals, including baboons, buffaloes, cattle, sheep, goats, swine, dogs, cats, tigers, foxes guinea pigs, horses, chimpanzees, monkeys, chickens, rodents, mice and other laboratory animals, e.g., rabbits, rats.[13,14,15,16,17,18] According to Hubka,[19] Trichophyton interdigitale comprises human and zoophilic strains. Currently the predominant dermatophytes recovered from human ringworm lesions in India are T. rubrum and T. interdigitale.[20] Clinical infections in animals due to T. interdigitale are not yet recorded. The dermatophyte, T. verrucosum causes clinical infections in all ruminants, brief features of such infections in cattle and buffaloes in India are described in this review. Sometimes these animals may be asymptomatic carriers. T. verrucosum is the most common cause of ringworm in calves (https://www.sciencedirect/com. > topics > trichophyton-verrucosum). The brief clinical and demographic features of infections caused by the zoophilic Trichophyton species in India are described in Table 1. Diagnosis in all the cases was made by direct microscopy and recovery of the causative Trichophyton species in culture.

Table 1:: Brief clinical and demographic features of animal infections caused by zoophilic Trichophyton species.
Reference Location No. of animals infected with clinical lesions Lesions/Sites infected Total (percent) positiv
Trichophyton simii
Stockdale et al. 1965[12] Mathura (UP) One monkey Not known Not applicable
Gugnani and Randhawa 1973[15] Delhi 70 poultry birds infected with T. simiiout of flock of 250 examined 7 birds in one additional and 2 birds in two other poultry farms Comb, wattle and basal portion of the flank feathers. In 8 of the birds, entire combs were heavily infected, with scaly and erythematous lesion, appearing ragged 70/250(28)
Gugnani et al. 1973[17] Hisar (Haryana) 3 poultry birds with T. simii Scaly erythematous lesions on flank feathers Could not be determine
Gugnani et al. 1973[17] Meerut
(Uttar Pradesh)
3 poultry birds with T. simii Scaly erythematous lesions on flank feathers Could not be determine
Gupta et al. 1969[21] Hisar (Haryana) 1 dog with T. simii Could not be determine
Mohapatra and Mahajan 1970[22] Delhi 2 dogs with T. simii Circular lesions on the nose and upper lip Could not be determined
Ranganathan et al.[23] Chennai/India Two of 89 dogs with T. simii ? 211–2(0.95)
Mitra 1998[24] Several locations in Uttar Pradesh One of 22 cattle T. simi- ? 22–1(4.5)
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Mohapatra et al. 1964[25] An animal house in AIIMS,
New Delhi
Four guinea pigs and one rabbit Scaly erythematous lesions on flanks Could not be determined
Gupta et al. 1970[21] Agriculture University campus, Hisar Pigs 8 Not known Could not be determined
Mitra 1998[23] Uttar Pradesh Cattle 1 of 22 Not known Could not be determined
Debnath et al. 2016[26] Companion animals in a private farm, Kolkata (W.B) Dogs 49 out of 248 and cats 14 out of 103 Animals sampled were without lesions 49/248(19.76)
14/103(13.59)
Parmar et al. 2018[27] Anand, Gujrat Cattle 5 out of 52, Buffaloes 2 out of 52 Small raised, circumscribed. grayish-white crusted alopecic lesions on body 5/52(9.62)
2/52(3.85)
Trichophyton verrucosum
Parmar et al. 2018[27] Anand, Gujrat Cattle 12 out of 52,
Buffaloes 5 out of 22
Small raised, circumscribed. grayish-white crusted alopecic lesions on body 12/52(23.08)
5/22(22.73)
Trichophyton rubrum
Chakraborty et al. 1954[28] Bengal Veterinary College & Hospital, Belgachia, Kolkata
(West Bengal)
Dog 1
Cows 2
Scaly, moist, partially alopecic, itching lesions on the buttocks and the trunk dorsal to the front legs.
The first one had small raised plaques covered with scabs, on the head, on the muzzle and on the side of nostril. The second cow was covered with ringworm-like lesions all over the body.
?
?
Mitra 1998[23] Uttar Pradesh One out of 22 cattle Not known Could not be determined
Table 2:: Brief clinical and demographic features of clinical infections in animals in India caused by Microsporum species.
Reference Location No. of animals infected with clinical lesions Lesions/Sites infected Total (percent) positive
Microsporum canis
Pal 2001[32] Anand, Gujarat Goat-1, seven-year-old female Dermatophytosis Irregular, diffuse, scaly , alopecic, yellowish-gray, crusted lesions on the face and pinna NA
Debnath et al. 2015[33] Companion animals in a private farm, Kolkata (W.B) Dogs 108 out of 248,
Cats 57 out of 103
Animals sampled were without lesions 108/248(43.55)
57/103(55.34)
Parmar et al. 2018[34] Anand, Gujarat Dogs 6 Lesions similar
to that in cattle and buffalo
6/18(33.3)
Microsporum gypseum
Debnath et al. 2015[33] Companion animals in a private farm, Kolkata (W.B) Dogs 91 out of 248, Cats 32 out of 103 Animals sampled were without lesions 91/248(36.9)
32/103(34.35)

Abbreviation: NA-Not applicable

Table 3:: Salient features of aspergillosis in birds in India.
Reference Location Bird species and no. of infected Types of lesions Diagnosis Total (%) positive
Khan et al. 1977[37] Zoological Park, Delhi Imported Penguins - 7 out of 10 Persistent dullness, anorexia, and abnormal movements of the neck. Gross pathology showed enlarged liver with calcified nodules, greyish white nodules of varying size in the lungs; with thickening of serous membrane. Histopathology and recovery of Aspergillus fumigatusfrom fibrino-caseous deposits 7/8(87.5)
Pal 1983[38] A buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calf Keratomycosis A. fumigatus Could not be determined
Pal 1988[39] Anand, Gujrat, College of Vet. Science A 9-year-old buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) aborted at 7 months of gestation Culture of A. nigerfrom the liver, lung, lung and aborted fetus. The fungus and by demonstration of the fungus in KOH mounts of the placental tissues, skin, lung and liver Could not be determined
Pal M 1992[40] Anand Gujrat A young pigeon (Columbia livia) kept by a bird fancier Disseminated Aspergillosis Demonstration of branched septate hyphae, characteristic of Aspergillus in tissue sections and Aspergillus terreusconidiophores in squeeze preparation of air sacs Could not be determined
Singh 1994[41] Ludhiana, Punjab Agricultural University Japanese Quail. (Coturnix japonica). The bird died Mycotic salpingitis. Necropsy revealed white to grayish 2–5 mm nodules on the setosal surface of the oviduct and the muscular wall of the oviduct. Histopathology and culture of Aspergillusflavus Could not be determined
Could not be determined
Singh et al. 2009[42] Jaipur, Rajasthan Turkey poults. 85 of 120 brooding poults aged 3 days had ruffled feathers, gasping, nasal discharge and trembling. Mortality 65 (76.47) Ruffled feathers, gasping, nasal discharge and trembling. Mortality 65(76.47) Histopathology and culture of A. fumigatus 85/120(70.8)
Shukla 2012[43] Mhow, Indore (M.P.) Local Emu farm Emu (Dromaius novahollandiae) 11 out of 146 Emu chicks infected in an outbreak died History of respiratory symptoms and mild nervous signs Histopathology and recovery of A. fumigatusin culture 1/146(0.68)
Brathisdasan
et al. 2013[44]
Izatnagar (U.P.) Angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a Himalayan Griffin vulture (Gyps Himalyensis) Weakness, emaciation, dyspnea, incoordination, and inability to fly, the bird, succumbing to the illness. Gross pathological examination revealed several yellowish circumscribed, raised, miliary nodules on the surface of the lungs, air sac membranes, trachea, pericardium, aorta, pulmonary artery and kidneys. Diagnosis was based on histopathology and culture of A. fumigatuslungs and air sacs of the bird. Could not be determined
Singh and Mahajan 2016[45] Hisar, Bhivani, Jind, Sirsa and Fatehabad, Haryana Four outbreaks in poultry of different age groups: 0–7 days old – 20 with 4.42% morbidity and 2–89% mortality, 8–14 days with 9.49% morbidity and 6–36% mortality 15–21-day old–13 with 7.4% morbidity and 5.29% mortality,
> 21 days – 7 with 3.7% morbidity and 2.23% mortality
On gross pathology examination, pin-head sized yellowish nodules were observed on the lungs and air sac Demonstration of characteristic septate hyphae in PAS- stained tissue sections of lungs, and recovery of
A. fumigatus in culture.
Ahmad DB et al. 2018[46] Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Of the 200 desi chickens 40(20%) had systemic aspergillosis with symptoms of anorexia, whitish droppings, dullness, difficulty in respiration. 5(12.5%) died. 40/200(20%)

Abbreviation: NA-Not applicable

Table 4:: Infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and other yeast like fungi in different animals in India.
Reference Location Animal species and no infected Types of infection/lesions Diagnosis Total (%) positive
Cryyptococcus neoformans
Singh et al. 2007[54] Bamboo thicket, Jabalpur (M.P.) Bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica)-2 healthy male rats Discrete, soft, confluent, elevated lesions in the lung, (some caseated) observed on dissection of the euthanized rats Demonstration of encapsulated yeast cells in direct microscopy of lungs, liver, kidney and spleen and isolation of C. neoformansvar, grubiifrom these organs Not known
Singh et al 2020[55] Kolkata, West Bengal An 8-month-old adopted stray bitch Anorexia, depression, urinary incontinence, dysuria for
10 days, emaciated; was dehydrated and had sunken eyes, ocular and nasal discharge and had fever (103°F). Physical examination showed distended urinary bladder and abdominal pain. Blood profile revealed low hemoglobin, leucocytosis, neutrophilia, and lymphopenia.
Demonstration of budding yeast cells in urine and isolation of C. neoformansconfirmed by sequencing the ITS region of rRNA Not known
Candida species
Sikdar et al. 1972[6] Kolkata, West Bengal Mares (13) in outbreak of abortion Not described Demonstration of yeast cells in placenta and
fetal organs by histopathology and culture of Candida pseudotropicalis
Not known
Kumar and James 2012[56] Nammakal, Kerala Cattle, out of 21 samples of milk from suspected cases of mastitis, yielded I each of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Torulopsissp, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida guillermondii, 2 of C . parapsilosis, 3 of Trichospsoron cutaneum, 4 of Geotrichum candidum, 7 of Candida tropicalis Lesions not described Isolation of causative agents from centrifuged deposits of mil samples 18/21
(85.7%)
Jadhav and Pal, 2013[57] Out of 69 dogs, seven had clinical infection, 1 - otitis, stomatitis - 4, dermatitis - 2. Out of 21 buffaloes, 5 - otitis, 1 - stomatitis,
1 - mastitis
4 dogs and I buffalo with stomatitis had symptoms of salivation, halitosis and anorexia.
Details of clinical features in cases of mastitis not mentioned.
Demonstration of Candida in. skin scrapings and pus swabs and isolation of C. albicansin culture in cases of stomatitis. In cases of mastitis, demonstration of Candida in centrifuged deposits of milk samples and recovery of C. albicans. Dogs 7/69
(12.5%)
Buffaloes
8/21 (38.0)
Weldman 1925[2] Single horned India Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)-1 Not known Exfoliative dermatitis Culture of Mallesezia patchydermatitis, (described as a new species) from skin lesions Not known
Reddy and Kumari 2015[58] Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh India Recurrent pyoderma with Malassezia and hyperadrenocorticism in a dog. Not known Not known Not known
Reddy and Sivajothi 215[59] Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh India An adult dog Chronic discolored pruritic lesions with rancid odor on the ventral chin, neck, abdomen and inner surface of the legs Demonstration of yeast cells of
M. patchydermatitisin smears of the skin scrapings and hair from the lesions
Not known
Rasamala and Kumar, 2018[60] Kerala (India) Dogs.-
P. patchydermatitis associated with 6.6% of dogs with dermatitis, 4–4% of dogs with pyoderma, 2% of dogs with dermatophytosis. Pigs - 2%
Skin lesions, details of clinical features not known Isolation of P. patchydermatitis from the skin scrapings of the lesions Not known
Gangna
et al. 2021[61]
Thrissur, Kerala (India) Dogs 15 with dermatitis and 10 with otitis Dogs with dermatitis showed primary and secondary scaly skin lesions with erythematous papules, alopecia, crusts, pruritis excoriations, and hyperkeratosis.
The clinical signs in dogs with otitis were excessive discharge from ears with offensive odor.
Recovery of M. patchydermatitisfrom the ear swabs of cases of otitis, and skin scrapings of the lesions in cases of dermatitis.

Histoplasma and Blastomyces species

Histoplasmosis, a non-contagious fungal disease caused by a thermally dimorphic, histoplasma capsulatum is found worldwide. Infection is acquired by inhalation of the hyphal elements and microconidia of the fungus from old avian excreta or bat guano, which reach the alveoli followed by rapid conversion to yeast form that can persist and spread in the body through the blood stream and lymphatics causing disseminated disease [Wheat et al. 2016,[62] Gugnani et al. 2018[63]]. Infection has been described in several species of small mammals including wild rats and opossum. The disease is uncommon or rarely detected in dogs and cats. Demonstration of histoplasmosis in the animals helps to establish the endemicity of the disease in a given area.[62] There is no report of Histoplasma from small mammals in India. Singh published his study of clinical cases in 1966[64] but the clinical details of the lesions are not available, nor were there in the report of equine mycotic respiratory disease by Ramachandran in 1995[65]; all attempts to locate clinical features of the cases described in the reports by an exhaustive search of the literature in different search engines were unsuccessful.

Blastomycosis, a serious fungal disease caused by a thermally dimorphic fungus, Blatomyces dermatidis, affects dogs, humans and occasionally other mammals with a restricted geographic distribution. It is primarily a canine disease with approximately 10 dogs for every human case (Schwartz, 2018).[66] Blastomycosis is acquired primarily through inhalation of airborne conidia of Blastomyces species that are liberated from the mold phase of the fungus, which is associated with moist, acidic, sandy soils enriched with decaying organic matter and animal droppings (Restrepo et al. 2000).[69] Dogs develop the disease more rapidly than humans. Most dogs get infected by inhaling spores of B. dermatitiids from soil and organic debris. Detection of blastomycosis in dogs is a sentinel of possible occurrence of human cases of this disease.[67] There is one reported case of canine blastomycosis from India in a Mongrel dog, found dead in Indian Veterinary Research Institute Campus, Izatnagar, Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh) by Iyer, 1982.[68] Infection was diagnosed by histopathological demonstration of thick-walled, broad-based yeast cells typical of B. dermatitidis in tissue sections of necropsied lung lesions.[68] Other animals including cats are very less commonly affected. No case of blastomycosis in cats or other animals in India could be traced in the literature search.

DISCUSSION

The present review of literature updates our knowledge on the different type of mycoses in domestic animals and poultry in India caused by zoophilic dermatophytes, Aspergillus species, and yeast-like fungi. The salient clinical and demographic features of infections in several parts of India caused by different species of fungi are aptly described. An unusual observation in the literature review was the report of Trichophyton rubrum infection in one dog and two cows from Belgachia, Kolkata, West Bengal,[26] this being the first record of animal infections due to T. rubrum in the world at that time. Also noteworthy is the report of cryptococcosis due to C. neoformans var. grubii in a bandicoot rat,[52] constituting the first record of this disease in a bandicoot rat. Another notable observation in our literature search is the detection of a canine case of blastomycosis in Uttar Pradesh.[67] Surveillance for more canine cases in other parts of India may facilitate detection of endemic foci of B. dermatitidis in the country. It is worth mentioning here about a case of tinea faciens due to Microsporum canis in a goat handler reported by Pal in 2001.[31] Thus, it is suggested that dairy and veterinary scientists should investigate occurrence of fungal infections in animal handlers and their contacts in the livestock farms under their care.

CONCLUSION

This review of animal infections describes the early records of mycotic infections in India, and gives many insights updating our knowledge on this topic. Reports on the prevalence of Trichophyton simii infection in animals in different parts of India covered in this review establish the endemicity of this infection in animals in India. A noteworthy finding in literature search is the report of clinical infections in one dog and two cows by an anthropophilic dermatophyte, T. rubrum from Belgachia, Kolkata, West Bengal in 1954. By tracing many publications on dermatophytosis, aspergillosis, and infections due to yeast-like fungi in domestic animals and poultry, this review has given a true picture of the prevalence of these mycoses in different parts of India. Dairy and veterinary scientists should look for transmission of fungal infection from livestock to animal handlers and their contacts. Investigation of the possible occurrence of fungal infections due to other fungi including the dimorphic fungal pathogens e.g. Histoplasma and Blastomyces in animals in India is also suggested.

Declaration of patient consent

Patient’s consent not required as there are no patients in this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. . Bijdrage tot de kennis van der hyphomyces destruens. Ned Ind Bland Diergenaeskd Dierenteelt. 1924;36:229-345.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. , , , , . Pythium insidiosum sp. nov., the etiologic agent of pythiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1987;25:344-49.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  3. . Exfoliative dermatitits in the Indian Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) with a description of a new species Pityrosporium patchydermatitis In Fox H, ed. Report of the Laboratory and Museum Comparative Pathology of the Zoological Society of Philadephia 36-43.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. , , , , , et al. Epidemiology of Malassezia-related skin diseases In: Boekhout T. Guého E, Mayser P, Velegraki A, editors. Malassezia and the skin. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; . p. 65-119.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  5. , , , , , , et al. An epidemic of Malassezia pachydermatis in an intensive care nursery associated with colonization of health care workers' pet dogs. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:706-11.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  6. , , , et al. Isolation of Candida pseudotropicalis from abortion in mares. a note. Indian J Animal Sci. 1972;42:737-38.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. . Epidermophyton du singer. Bull de la Soc de Pathologie Exotique (Paris). 1972;5:60-63.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. . Epizootic lymphangitis. Indian Vet. J. 1952;37:342-43.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. , , . A note on an outbreak of epizootic lymphangitis in equines. Indian Vet J. 1966;43:338-39.
    [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  10. , . A compilation of published reports of myoses in animals in India. Mycopathol Mycol Applicata. 1980;72:3-11.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  11. , , , , , . Atlas of clinical Fungi (3rd-e Edition). Utrecht/Rues; .
    [Google Scholar]
  12. , , . Arthroderma simii sp. nov., the perfect state of Trichophyton simii (Pinoy) comb. Nov. Saubouradia. 1965;4:112-23.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  13. , , . Natural infections in laboratory animals due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes in India. Mycopatholgia Mycologia Applicata. 1964;24:275-80.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  14. , . Occurrence of Athroderma simii in soil and hair of small mammals. Sabouraudia1968;. ;6:77-80.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  15. , , . Isolation of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi from apparently healthy skin coats of domestic animals. Indian J Med Res. 1971;5:169-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. . Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in monkeys and its transmission to man. Hindustan Antibiotics Bull. 1971;14:11-14.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. , . An epizootic of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton simii in poultry. Sabouraudia. 1973;11:1-3.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  18. , , . Dermatophytes and other ketratinophilic fungi recovered from small mammals in India. Mykosen. 1975;18:529-36.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  19. , , , . Common and emerging dermatophytosis in animals. Well-known and emerging threats In: , ed. Emerging and Epzootic Fungal infections in Animals. Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature; .
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  20. , , , , , , et al. Mutation in the squalene epioxidase gene of Trichophyton interdigitale and T. rubrum associated with allylamine resistance. Anitmicrob agents Chemotherap. 2018;62:e0522-17.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  21. , , . Dermatophytes from man, dogs and pigs, with special reference to Trichophyton simii and Microsporum nanum. Indian J Anim Health. 1969;7:247-53.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. , . Trichophyton simii infection in man and animals. Mycopatholgia Mycologia Applicata. 1970;41:375-62.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  23. , , . A survey of dermatophytosis in animals in Madras, India. Mycopathologia. 1997-1998;140:137-40.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  24. . Dermatophytes isolated from selected ruminants in India. Mycopathologia. 1998;142:13-16.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  25. , , , . Detection of dermatophytes in healthy companion dogs and cats. Iranian J Vet Res. 2016;17:20-24.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. , , , , , . Prevalence of dermatophytosis in animal and human population with special reference to its zoonotic significance. Int J Pure Appl Bioscience. 2018;6:687-91.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  27. , , . Isolation of Trichophyton rubrum (Castellani) Sabouraud 1911, from Animals. Canad J Comparative Med. 1954;18:436-37.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. . Natural history of the dermatophytes and related fungi. Mycopathol Mycol Appl. 1964;53:93-110.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  29. , . The dermatophytes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1995;8:240-59.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  30. , , . Keratinophilic fungi isolated from hospital dust and soils of public places at Gulbarga, India. Mycopathologia. 2005;159:13-21.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  31. . Dermatophytosis in a goat and its handler due to Microsporm canis. Indian J Anim Sci. 2001;71:138-40.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. , , , . Detection of dermatophytes companion in healthy dogs and cats in eastern India. Iranian J Vet Res. 2017;17:20-24.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. , , , , , . Prevalence of dermatophytosis in animal and human population with special reference to its zoonotic significance. Int J Pure Appl Bioscience. 2018;6:687-91.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  34. , , . Dermatophytes from man, dogs, and pigs with special reference to Trichophyton simii and Microsporum nanum. Indian J. Anim. Health. 1968;7:247-53.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. . Ecology and taxonomy of pathogenic aspergilli. Frontiers Biosci. 2003;8:S346-57.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  36. , , , , , , et al. Aspergillus and aspergilloses in wild and domestic animals: a global health concern with parallels to human disease. Med Mycol. 2015;53:765-69.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  37. , , , . Aspergillosis in imported penguins. Sabouraudia. 1977;15:43-45.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  38. . Keratomycosis in a buffalo calf (Bubalus bubalis) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus. Vet Rec. 1983;113:67.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  39. . Aspergillus niger associated with mycotic abortion in a buffaloe (Bubalus bubalis) Mycoses. 1988;31:17-19.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  40. . Disseminated Aspergillus terreus infection in a caged pigeon. Mycopathologia. 1992;119:137-39.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  41. . Mycotic salpingitis in a Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica): Avian Diseases. . 1994;38:910-13.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  42. , , . Aspergillosis in turkey poults. Indian J Vet Pathol. 2009;33:220-21.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  43. , , , , . Outbreak of Aspergillus fumigatus in an organized Emu farm in Indore. J Adv Vet Res. 2013;3:8-11.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. , , , , . The first case of angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a Himalayan Griffon vulture (Gyps Himalayensis) Avian Bio Res
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  45. , . Epidemiology of avian aspergillosis in parts of Haryana, India. Indian Vet J. 2016;93:16-19.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. , , , , . Pathology of systemic aspergillosis in a desi chicken. Shanlax Int. J Vet Sci. 2018;5:36-42.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. , , , . Cryptococcus gattii in wildlife of Vancouver island, British Columbia, Canada. J Wildlife Dis. 2006;42:175-78.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  48. , et al. Veterinary Medicine In: A textbook of the diseases of cattle, horses, sheep, pigs and goats (10th ed). .
    [Google Scholar]
  49. , , , , , . Malsezzia ecology, pathophysiology, and treatment. Med Mycol. 2018;56:S10-S25.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  50. , . Malessezia yeasts in veterinary dermatology: an updated review. Front Cellular Infect Microbiol. 2020;10
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  51. , , , , , , et al. Biology, diagnosis and treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs and cats. Clinical consensus guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. Vet Dermatol. 2020;31:27-e4.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  52. , , , . Conventional characterization and PCR based diagnosis of Malassezia pachydermatis from cerumen of healthy Indian cats. Int J Livestock Res. 2020;10:57-61.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  53. , , , , . First case of cryptococcosis in a new species of bandicoot (Bandicota indica) caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. Med Mycol. 2007;45:89-93.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  54. , , . First report of cryptococcuria in a bitch from India. A case report. Bull Natl Res Cent. 2020;44:200.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  55. , . Recurrent pyoderma with Malassezia and hyperadrenocorticism in a dog. Indian J Field Vet. 2011;7:44-45.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. , . Therapeutic management of Malasezzia dermatitis in Labrador retriever dog. Int J Livestock Res. 2015;5:105-09.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  57. , . Recurrent Malassezia dermatitis due to hypothyroidism in a dog and its management. Comparative Clin Path. 2016;25:531-33.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  58. , . Malassezia yeasts in veterinary dermatology: an updated overview. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2020;10:79.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  59. , , , , , , et al. Biology, diagnosis and treatment of Malessezia dermatitis in dogs and cats. Clinical consensus guidelines of the World Association for Veterinary Dermatology. Vet Dermatol. 2020;31:27-e4.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  60. , , , . Conventional characterization and PCR based diagnosis of Malassezia pachydermatis from cerumen of healthy Indian cats. Int J Livestock Res. 2020;10:57-61.
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  61. , , , , . Biofilm formation in Malasezzia patchydermatitis from dogs. The Pharma Journal. 2021;SP-10:5-8.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. , . Incidence of fungal mastitis in cattle. Tamilnadu. J Vet & Animal Sci. 2012;8:356-59.
    [Google Scholar]
  63. , . Human and animal infections caused by Candida albicans. J Mycopathol Res. 2013;51:243-49.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. . Animal reservoirs and other sources in nature of the pathogenic fungus, Histoplasma. . Am J Public Health Nations Health. Available from http://alpha.alphapublications.org/doi/pdf/10.2015/AJPH.40.4.436
    [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
  65. , . Occurrence of histoplasmosis in the Indian sub-continent: an overview and update. J Med Res Practice. 2018;71:71-83.
    [Google Scholar]
  66. . Studies on epizootic lymphangitis. Study of clinical cases and experimental transmission. Indian J Vet Sci. 1966;36:45-49.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. . Equine respiratory disease. Mycotic and helminthic causes. Centaur. 1995;11:69-79.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. . Blastomycosis in mammals In: , , , , eds. Emerging and Epizootic Fungal Infections in Animals. Cham: Springer; .
    [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]
  69. , , , , , , et al. Clues to the presence of pathogenic fungi in certain environments. Med Mycol. 2000;38:67-77.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Show Sections